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CMAS standartai (angl.)

Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques

C.M.A.S. Diver

Training Program

CMAS TC Version 9/2002

THE C.M.A.S. INTERNATIONAL DIVERS CERTIFICATES SYSTEM

The C.M.A.S. has established standards which form the basis of a system of International Divers Certificates, which are recognised by all national federations and other bodies which are member of the C.M.A.S. Technical Committee.

The standards describe the knowledge and skills required in order for a diver to be granted the appropriate C.M.A.S. International Divers Certificate.

The certificates may be awarded as an equivalent to a national qualification held by the divers, or may be awarded directly by a C.M.A.S. recognised Diving School or by certain national federations.

The standards describe four grades of divers

•·          One        Star      Diver                     *

•·          Two       Stars     Diver                    **

•·          Three      Stars     Diver                   ***

•·          Four       Stars     Diver                  ****

Details of the standards will be found in the C.M.A.S. publication " Standards and Requirements "

In most cases divers will be trained in accordance with the training programmes used by their national federation, and these will have been closely considered during the process of granting approval for International Certificate Equivalents.

The Diver Training Programmes outlined here are intended to:

1.      Act as an example to federations wishing to become members of the C.M.A.S. Technical Committee, and aiming to issue divers certificates which will have equivalent C.M.A.S. International Divers Certificates.

2.      Indicate to existing members of the Technical Committee the current standards of training considered necessary in order to reach the minimum levels of proficiency required for the award of C.M.A.S. International Divers Certificates

3.      Act as a basis for the training programmes to be adopted by C.M.A.S. recognised Diving Schools for courses resulting in the direct issue of C.M.A.S. International Divers Certificates.

The programmes are described as a sequence of theoretical and practical lessons, wherever possible the practical lesson builds on theoretical knowledge already taught to the student. Suggestions are offered on the time each lesson can be expected to occupy in a normal programme.

The lessons have been given codes to describe their place in the programmes. For example, " 2T6 " is a theoretical lesson ( T ) for two stars diver ( 2 ) and is the sixth in the sequence ( 6 ). 1P2 is therefore the second practical lesson in the one star diver programme.

 

ONE STAR DIVER

 

TRAINING PROGRAMME

A diver who is competent in the safe and correct use of all appropriate open water scuba diving equipment in a sheltered water training area is ready to gain open water diving experience in the company of an experienced diver. Practical teaching sessions should take place in a swimming pool or confined water with swimming pool like conditions.

THEORY LESSONS                                                                         PRACTICAL LESSONS

1T1         Course aims and administration                                   1P1          Introduction to equipment

1T2         Introduction to equipment                                              1P2          SCUBA Skills 1

1T3         Elementary signals                                                          1P3          Snorkelling and SCUBA Skills 2

1T4         Pressure/Volume relationships                                     1P4          SCUBA Skills 3

1T5         Principles and use of SCUBA                                        1P5          SCUBA Skills 4

1T6         Basic physiology                                                              1P6          Rescue Skills

1T7         Buoyancy devices                                                             1P7          SCUBA Skills review

1T8         Diving suits & other equipment                                    1P8          Skills assessment

1T9         Equipment care                                                                1P9          5 Open Water Dives

1T10       Self Rescue & Buddy Rescue

1T11       Safe Diving Practices

1T12       Site selection, Conservation

CONTENT OF THEORETICAL LESSONS

•1 T 1     COURSE AIMS AND ADMINISTRATION

This introductory lesson should explain the purpose of the training programme and its position in the diver certification system, the relation ship between the school/club/federation and C.M.A.S., and the basis of the C.M.A.S. International Divers Certificate System. Administrative details concerning meeting times and location, timetable, equipment to be supplied or brought. Aims of the course, organisation of the school/club.

Logbook and qualification records.

(Time: 20 minutes )

•1 T 2     INTRODUCTION TO DIVING EQUIPMENT

The selection, purpose and function of the mask, fins, snorkel and weight belt.

Mask, fins, snorkel: construction, features, fitting, maintenance, testing, suitability

Weight belt: features, fitting, release operation, importance of neutral buoyancy

Brief description of SCUBA elements

Equipment to be used on the course

Warnings about breath-holding, squeeze

( Time: 30 minutes )

•1 T 3     ELEMENTARY SIGNALS

Reasons for using hand signals underwater and at the surface.

Importance of using the C.M.A.S. International Code of Underwater Signals.

Diver to diver signals

Diver to surface party signals

Signals to be used during course

Importance of response to signals

( Time: 25 minutes )

•1 T 4     PRESSURE/VOLUME RELATIONSHIP

The basic physics affecting diving

Atmospheric pressure and hydrostatic pressure, absolute pressure.

Relationship between pressure and volume ( Boyles laws ).

Gases under pressure, composition of air.

Effects of pressure on body air spaces, changes in pressure.

Compression problems: mask squeeze, ear and sinuses under pressure, equalisation.

Expansion problems, breath holding..

Buoyancy factors and adjustment

( Time: 40 minutes )

•1 T 5     PRINCIPLES AND USE OF SCUBA

The function of SCUBA, in principle only. Reduction of air pressure from high to ambient. Ability to carry large amount of air with the diver..

The air cylinder, its charging and care

The regulator, its function and care

Pressure gauges and other ancillary equipment

Using SCUBA, preparation and fitting.

( Time: 30 minutes )

•1 T 6     BASIC PHYSIOLOGY

The human life support system, the respiratory system, the metabolic process.

The gas exchange within the lungs, the role of each gas.

Exhaustion, drowning, hypoxia, hypothermia, prevention.

( Time: 40 minutes )

•1 T 7     BUOYANCY DEVICES

Importance of wearing a buoyancy compensator for comfort during the dive and for use in an emergency, at the surface or underwater.

Essential features of different types.

Suitability for different types of diving.

Dangers of rapid ascent, controlling ascent

Use for buoyancy adjustment, recommended procedure

Methods of inflation, MP air, HP air, oral, CO2, advantages / disadvantages

Preparation, fitting, care

( Time: 30 minutes )

•1 T 8     DIVING SUITS AND ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Need for protection in all but warmest waters, abrasion and marine life protection. Equipment to be used on course. Advantages / Disadvantages of different types.

Wet / dry suits.

Selecting a suit, type.

Fitting and care.

Instrumentation, depth gauge, watch, compass, HP gauge, combinations, decompression computers.

Lamp, knife, buoys, lines, bag, slate.

Time: 30 minutes )

•1 T 9     EQUIPMENT CARE

Importance of a proper maintenance procedure for all diving equipment.

Pre-dive preparation, after-dive care.

Value of fresh water rinse and general cleanliness

Special care for perishable items, rubber, suits.

Prevention of corrosion to metal parts.

Protection for damage in transport.

Regular testing and servicing.

Storage, off-season.

( Time: 30 minutes )

•1 T 10   SELF RESCUE AND BUDDY RESCUE

Accident prevention through careful planning.

Recognise the signs and take early action.

Assess the required action and select, correct course of action.

Self-help an self-rescue techniques.

Correct techniques for shared ascent, buoyant ascent, and free ascent.

Expired air resuscitation, on the surface and in the water.

Towing and landing a victim.

Summoning and using help.

( Time: 40 minutes )

•1 T 11   SAFE DIVING PRACTICES

The correct conduct for open water diving practice.

The dive leader, his role in the dive.

Dive planning, to identify and avoid problem areas.

The buddy system and essential elements in dive safety.

Pre-dive preparation, equipment checks, briefing.

Entry, buoyancy check, descent, conduct of the dive, ascent, surfacing, leaving the water.

Emergency procedures, separation.

The International Diving Code.

International Code of Signals.

( Time: 40 minutes )

 

•1 T 12   SITE SELECTION AND CONSERVATION

How to choose a dive site.

What features to look for and what to avoid.

The effect of weather and tides.

Marine and aquatic life, what to look for, how to recognise it.

Attitude to marine life and the environment, importance of conservation.

Reasons to dive and things to do.

Dangerous marine life, avoidance, treatment.

( Time: 30 minutes )

 

 

CONTENT OF PRACTICAL LESSONS

•1 P 1     INTRODUCTION TO EQUIPMENT

In this course the student will be introduced in mask, fins and snorkel and their use, an will gain an appreciation of the effects of mask squeeze and ear clearing in shallow water. The buddy system will be employed from the first opportunity.

Fitting the mask, adjustment, demisting, ear clearing.

Fitting the snorkel, surface breathing, clearing by blowing and displacement.

Fitting the fins, adjustment, correct finning action, practice period.

Surface swimming, surface dives, and surfacing technique using mask, fins and snorkel.

Treading water, vertical finning, surface support stroke.

Brief introduction to SCUBA, fitting, breathing and swimming.

Adjusting buoyancy.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•1 P 2     SCUBA SKILLS 1

Assembling the SCUBA set, fitting and checking the regulator, air supply, fit of harness, buoyancy/weight equipment.

Entering the water, breathing from the aqualung in different attitudes, checking and adjusting buoyancy.

Finning and moving while wearing SCUBA.

Remove, replace and clear mouthpiece.

Remove, replace and clear mask.

Breathe from alternative air supply.

Static sharing SCUBA.

Surfacing and leaving water.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•1 P 3     SNORKELLING AND SCUBA SKILLS  2

Snorkelling skills, entering the water, leaving the water.

Feet first descent.

Surface dives while swimming.

Longer breath-hold dives.

Removing and recovering basic equipment.

Using and fitting a weight belt.

Repeat mask and snorkel clearing

SCUBA skills, entering and leaving the water.

Improve mouthpiece clearing and mask clearing technique.

Improve finning technique.

Demonstrate buoyancy control.

Share SCUBA following " out of air " simulation.

Remove SCUBA at surface.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•1 P 4     SCUBA SKILLS 3

Further entry techniques.

Improve basic techniques, mask clearing, finning.

Mobility exercises, rolls, buoyancy control.

Remove and replace weight belt underwater.

Remove and replace SCUBA underwater.

Surface, fit snorkel and swim on surface using snorkel while wearing SCUBA, replace SCUBA mouthpiece and descend.

Exit from water via ladder from deep water.

( Time: 60 minutes )

 

•1 P 5     SCUBA SKILLS 4

Improve familiarity with buoyancy device or life-jacket.

Inflate for surface support.

Control buoyancy at bottom and in mid water.

Control rate of ascent by release of air, demonstrate ability to stop.

Use of buoyancy for lift in an emergency, controlled buoyancy lift.

Rapid dumping of air, use of alternative inflation systems.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•1 P 6     RESCUE SKILLS

Controlled buoyancy lift of victim to surface.

Surface support and towing.

Correct position for expired air resuscitation at surface, importance of neck extension.

Calling and signalling for help.

( Time: 60 minutes )

1 P 7    SCUBA SKILLS REVIEW

In this lesson, all the equipment which will be used on open water dives, including suit, is introduced and the skills already learned are practised while fully equipped.

Exercises are carried out in the full depth of sheltered water available and the opportunity is taken for final improvement of any techniques still required.

( Time: 60 minutes )

1 P 8    SKILLS ASSESSMENT

All skills learned so fare are checked and assessed to ensure that they can be performed at the required standard. The combination of exercises is performed in sequence will also provide a measure of the student's fitness and stamina.

It must be remember that, after this lesson, suitable students are considered ready to continue their training in open water.

( Time: 60 minutes )

On completion of each lesson the instructor should assess the student's ability and ensure that they have adequately acquired the skills included in each lesson. It is particularly important that this assessment is made during lessons 1P4 and 1P6.

1 P 9    5 OPEN WATER DIVES

 

 

 

TWO STAR DIVER

 

TRAINING PROGRAMME

The two star diver is a diver who has gained some open water diving experience and is considered ready to take part in dives partnered by a diver of at least the same or a higher grade. The two star diver  may dive with a One Star Diver in sheltered shallow water .

The course must be conducted by qualified instructors and supervised by an instructor of at least one star grade. The early practical teaching sessions should take place in sheltered open water, following which the diver should gain experience in a broad range of varying water conditions.

THEORY LESSONS                                                                         PRACTICAL LESSONS

2T1         Diving related illnesses                                                  2P1          Open water diving procedures

2T2         First aid and rescue procedures                                     2P2          Rescue skills

2T3         Calculating air requirements                                        2P3          SCUBA skills - open water practice

2T4         Nitrogen absorption                                                        2P4          Unterwater Navigation

2T5         Deep diving                                                                      

2T6         Decompression tables                                                     Dives      1 -20

2T7         Dive planning and organisation

2T8         Unterwater Navigation

Knowledge Assessment                                Skills Assessment

CONTENT OF THEORETICAL LESSONS

•2 T 1     DIVING RELATED ILLNESSES

Revision of effects of pressure on the body, gas laws, partial pressures.

Ear and sinus disorders: causes, prevention, treatment

Burst lung ( Pneumothorax, Emphysema ), symptoms, causes, first aid, treatment.

Hypoxia: causes, treatment.

Decompression sickness ( basic introduction only ).

Nitrogen narcosis: causes, symptoms, treatment.

Carbon monoxide poisoning: causes, symptoms, treatment.

Carbon dioxide poisoning: causes, symptoms, treatment.

Oxygen poisoning: causes, symptoms, treatment.

Exhaustion, hypothermia, hyperthermia.

Drowning: causes, first aid, treatment.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•2 T 2     FIRST AID AND RESCUE PROCEDURES

Expand on lesson 1T10, and prepare for lesson 2P2.

Analysis of the accident.

Whether to assist or rescue.

Assess, plan, act

Reaching the victim, recovering the victim.

Towing methods.

Landing the victim, on a beach, on a boat.

Techniques to be employed and why.

Expired air resuscitation

External cardiac compression.

Aftercare.

( Time: 40 minutes )

•2 T 3     CALCULATING AIR REQUIREMENTS

Importance of pre-dive planning.

Identifying stages of dive: descent, main dive, ascent, stops, reserve.

Air consumption rates.

Cylinder sizes and pressures.

Calculating air available for the dive.

Calculating air needed for the dive.

Practice calculations.

( Time: 40 minutes )

 

•2 T 4     NITROGEN ABSOPRTION

Absorption of gases in liquids, absorption of air into body tissues.

Toxic effects of gases.

Physiological problems; narcosis.

Decompression sickness, mild forms, severe forms.

First aid and treatment for decompression sickness.

Avoidance of decompression sickness.

( Time: 40 minutes )

 

•2 T 5     DEEP DIVING

The problems related to deep diving.

Reasons for and against deep diving.

Physiological problems, narcosis, decompression.

Depth limitations.

Physical problems, buoyancy, thermal isolation, air density and purity.

Equipment considerations.

Planning requirements.

Response to emergencies.

( Time : 30 minutes )

•2 T 6     DECOMPRESSION TABLES

Used to avoid decompression sickness and related problems.

Principle of operation, review of nitrogen absorption.

The form and layout of the tables.

Using tables for no-stop diving.

Single dives.

Multiple dives.

Diving at altitude.

Flying after diving.

Keeping records, log-books.

Instrumentation used.

Importance of planning.

Practice in decompression table use.

( Time: 90 minutes )

•2 T 7     DIVE LANNING AND ORGANISATION

Planning is an essential element of diving safety.

Avoid the predictable problems.

Make allowance for all predictable needs and for emergencies.

Planning your own dives.

Site selection, objectives, timing, personnel, weather, tides.

Pre-dive preparation.

On-site organisation.

( Tme: 90 minutes )

 

2 T 8  UNDERWATER NAVIGATION

                   Underwater navigation, without a compass.

                   The compass, types, suitability.

                   How to use a compass when diving.

                   Taking a bearing, planning a course.

                   ( Time: 30 minutes )

 

 

 

KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT

Before granting the qualification, the instructor should ensure that the student has retained and understood the knowledge required to be a safe two star diver. The assessment will usually take the form of a prepared written text using " multi choice " questions which allow a coverage of many topics in a short period. Weaknesses which are suggested by the result of this paper can then be investigated by further oral questioning if necessary.

 

CONTENT OF PRACTICAL LESSONS AND EXPERIENCE DIVE

•2 P 1     OPEN WATER DIVING PROCEDURES

Practice snorkelling skills in open water, medium distance swim with surface dives.

Experience in dressing in all appropriate equipment for dive, equipment checks, buddy checks.

Water entry, buoyancy checks.

Leaving the surface.

Buddy diving, conduct during the dive.

Exchange signals.

Ascent and surfacing procedure.

Leaving the water.

Debriefing and equipment aftercare.

( Time: 120 minutes )

•2 P 2     RESCUE SKILLS

Following lesson 2T2, the skills described should be practises in an open water situation.

Towing victim on the surface, various methods.

In-water E.A.R.

Removing equipment.

Towing and landing to a beach, to a small boat.

Practice E.A.R. and E.C.C. on land.

Complete emergency exercise.

( Times: 90 minutes )

 

•2 P 3     SCUBA SKILLS    OPEN WATER REVIEW

Improve diver's confidence by repeating skills acquired in one star course in the open water situation.

Various forms of water entry.

Buoyancy adjustment procedures, use if weight belt and buoyancy compensator.

Review surface and underwater signals.

Remove and refit mask at medium depth.

Remove and replace mouthpiece at medium depth.

Practise buddy breathing and use secondary air supply or octopus.

Leaving the water on a beach, into a boat.

( Time: 90 minutes )

                  

2 P 4           UNDERWATER NAVIGATION

Using a compass on land.

Using a compass on the surface.

Using a compass underwater.

Swimming in straight lines, swimming reciprocal courses.

 ( Time: 60 minutes )

 

EXPERIENCE DIVES

The 20 dives which go to make up the experience of the two star diver should cover a suitably wide range of different diving conditions and, as far as possible, include the following:

Beach dives with sloping entry.

Sea water dives.

Fresh water dives.

Diving from small boats.

Diving from larger boats.

Limited visibility dives.

Diving during the night

Moving water dives

Dives in cold water.

Dives to 25 / 30 metres.

It is appreciated that this combination of variety of dives will not always be available to the dive centre or club. However, the underlying principle is that the diver's experience should equip him for a variety of diving conditions, and should not represent a repeat of a similar experience on each occasion.

Each dive should be at least 20 minutes duration and should be in the 10 - 30 metres depth range.

SKILLS ASSESSMENT

The diver's ability should be assessed by the instructor during the course of the dives being carried out. It will not normally be necessary to carry out a final assessment of all skills at the end of the course, but this can be done if the need exists. It is preferable to check one or two skills on each experience dive and to look for a steadily improving ability over this period.

 

THREE STAR DIVER

 

TRAINING PROGRAMME

The three star diver is a fully trained, experienced and responsible diver who is considered competent to lead other divers of any grade in open water.

The course must be conducted by qualified instructors and supervised by an instructor of at least two star grade. The course will require the availability of suitable open water diving sites, together with some specialised facilities.

The dive experience element of the qualification will require the diver to accumulate a broad range of experience under varying conditions and varying depths.

THEORY LESSONS                                                                         PRACTICAL LESSONS

3T1         Small boat handling                                                        3P1          Small boat handling

3T2         Underwater navigation                                                    3P2          Underwater navigation

3T3         Underwater search and recovery                                    3P3          Underwater search and recovery

3T4         Compressor operation                                                     3P4          Compressor operation

3T5         Accident management                                                     3P5          Assisting a dive organiser

3T6         Organising a group dive                                                 3P6          Acting as a dive organiser

3T7         Physics / physiology review)                                           Further experience as dive organiser:

3T8         Diving equipment review                                                40 experience dives

Knowledge assessment                                Skills assessment

CONTENT OF THEORETICAL LESSONS

•3 T 1     SMALL BOAT HANDLING

A preliminary to practical experience in small boat handling.

Basic seamanship, weather, tides.

" Rules of the road ", obligations of the boat handler.

Buoyage.

Ropes and their use, knots.

Using boats for diving, types, suitability.

Outboard engines and their use.

Safety equipment and special equipment.

Boat handling techniques, launching, anchoring, loading, low speed / high speed, emergency action.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 2     UNDERWATER NAVIGATION

Underwater navigation, without a compass.

The compass, types, suitability.

How to use a compass when diving.

Taking a bearing, planning a course.

Measuring distance, time, depth.

( Time: 40 minutes )

•3 T 3     UNDERWATER SEARCH AND RECOVERY TECHNIQUES

Situations requiring use of these techniques.

Planning and selection of appropriate techniques.

Search methods: compass search, Jackstay search, grid search, circular search, swim-line search.

Marking and evaluation an object.

Lifting with buoyancy, calculations.

Attaching lifting bags, air supply, the lift.

Safety considerations.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 4     COMPRESSOR OPERATION

Principles of operation of a compressor.

Purity of air, filtration.

Operating procedures, filling cylinder.

Compressor controls.

Use of storage bank.

Records and legal obligations.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 5     ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT

What can go wrong.

Avoiding  accidents, importance of planning.

Actions in an emergency.

Weather and water conditions.

Condition of divers, fitness, health, experience.

Missing diver(s).

Boat breakdown.

Diving related problems.

Injuries.

Rescue management.

First aid and aftercare management

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 6     ORGANISING A GROUP DIVE

Composition of group.

Selection of dive site, access, transport.

Timetable, planning requirements.

Personnel, dive group composition.

Equipment needs, safety equipment.

Diver briefing.

Diver log, records.

Safety precautions.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 7     PHYSICS / PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW

A review of material from 1T5, 1T7, 1T8, 1T9 together with a general review of future trends and current developments.

The gas laws.

The human life-support system.

Effects of pressure on the body.

Diving disorder, symptoms, treatment.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 T 8     DIVING EQUIPMENT REVIEW

A review of material from 1T5, 1T7, 1T8 et 1T9 together with a general revue of future trends and current developments.

Cylinders, care, testing.

Regulators, performance, servicing needs.

Protective clothing, suitability for type of diving, care.

Buoyancy systems, .relationship to other equipment

Diving equipment as a " system ".

Instrumentation, new developments.

National standards, legal requirements.

( Time: 60 minutes )

 

KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT

Before granting the qualification the instructor should ensure the student has retained and understood the knowledge required to be a safe C.M.A.S. three star diver.

The assessment will usually take the form of a prepared test using " multi-choice " questions which allow the coverage of many topics in a short period. Weaknesses which are suggested by the result of this paper can then be investigated by further oral questioning if necessary.

 

 

 

CONTENT OF PRACTICAL LESSONS

•3 P 1     SMALL BOAT HANDLING

The student should gain sufficient experience to be capable of handling z small boat, up to 5.5 m length, in normal diving conditions..

Checking and preparing a boat prior to use by divers.

Launching, loading, starting, leaving mooring / berth.

Sage operation under conditions not exceeding Force 4.

Techniques for use with divers, following divers, picking-up divers.

Action in an emergency.

Return to mooring / berth.

Removal from water ( if appropriate ).

(Time: 45 minutes )

•3 P 2     UNDERWATER NAVIGATION

Using a compass on land.

Using a compass on the surface.

Using a compass underwater.

Swimming in straight lines, swimming reciprocal courses.

Taking bearings and planning courses.

Measuring / estimating distance. 

Show  ability to bring back a dive team to the departure point ( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 P 3     SEARCH AND RECOVERY

Identify area to be searched.

Select technique to be employed.

Prepare equipment, brief personnel.

Carry out search plan, locate object.

Evaluate object and select lifting equipment.

Secure lifting equipment and bring object to surface.

Bring object ashore or to new location.

( Time: 2 - 3 hours )

•3 P 4     COMPRESSOR OPERATION

Pre-operation checks, starting procedure.

Inspection of cylinders prior to filling.

Connection of cylinders to compressor panel.

Charging operations, use of bank.

Shut-down procedure, care of filters.

( Time: 60 minutes )

•3 P 5     ASSISTING A DIVE ORGANISER

Understand all the pre-dive planning requirements.

Consider the allocation of divers and dive-leaders / instructors.

Consider the timing requirements.

Ensure that equipment required is available / functioning.

Record all activity.

Plan for emergency procedures.

Adapt plan to site / facilities.

( Time: 4 hours )

•3 P 6     ACTING AS DIVE ORGANISER

As for 3P5, carried out under supervision but following student's plan.

( Time: 4 hours )

EXPERIENCE DIVES

The CMAS Three Star Diver must have minimum 50 dives at the time of certification of which 20 dives should be on the 30 meter range

The dives logged should demonstrate the diver's broad experience of diving under varying conditions and ver a period of time suitable for the accumulation of skills and knowledge. The log should indicate those dives where the diver has been responsible for other divers or for the planning of the diving operation.

SKILLS ASSESSMENT

The main qualities to be assessed by the instructor will be the student's ability to organise and lead other divers, together with a demonstration of competence in the areas covered by the programme. The three star diver must be " fully trained " and should therefore not display areas of weakness in the practical performance of diving.

C.M.A.S. TC Standards & Requirements Diver/Instructor   Version 9/2002

ONE STAR INSTRUCTOR
A three star diver who has a knowledge of the techniques of diving instruction and is competent in practical instructional skills: he is
qualified  to direct and certify a full CMAS One Star Diver Course. 


TWO STAR INSTRUCTOR
An experienced one star instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to teach groups of divers in the classroom, pool, and in open water, and to assist in the training of One Star Instructors. He is qualified to direct and c ertify all CMAS diver levels and all CMAS  snorkel Instructor levels.  


THREE STAR INSTRUCTOR
A fully experienced two star instructor who is competent to train all grades of divers and instructors and to take responsibility for the conduct of diving schools, centres, and specialised training courses and events.

CMAS TWO STAR INSTRUCTOR
a. Definition
An experienced one star instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to teach groups of divers in the classroom, pool and open water, and to assist in the training of One Star Instructor. He is qualified to direct and certify all CMAS diver levels and all CMAS Snorkel Instructor levels..
b. Entry requirements
1.      Must hold a 1 Star Instructor Certificate.
2.      Must be at least 19 years old.
3.      Must have gained further practical instructional experience since obtaining 1 Star Instructor Certificate.
c. Course content: Knowledge, Must have a complete understanding of : The Principles of teaching. The learning process. Instructional methods appropriate to sport diving. Equipment used in diving instruction. Skills Be able to control and lead a group of students in varying diving conditions. Be able to instruct a group of students in open water conditions. Be able to teach the contents of the 1,2 and 3 Star Diver courses to a group of students in a surface/classroom situation and in open water. Be able to communicate effectively with the students at all times.
d. Assessment
In the ‘continuous assessment' system the above knowledge and skills will be assessed at various points
during their course, and the certificate will only be awarded if the instructor is judged to have reached
the required standard.
If the ‘testing' system is used then the final assessment should establish the instructor's ability to carry
out the following under sheltered water diving conditions.
Skills
1.      Demonstrate the ability to control and lead a group of students in a dive to take place in open water.
2.      Demonstrate the ability to instruct a group of students in selected diving techniques in sheltered and open water.
3.      Demonstrate familiarity with the contents of the 1,2 and 3 Star Diver courses and the ability to teach a group of students in a surface/classroom situation and in open water.
4.      Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively with the students at all times.

The assessment will be made at a national level by a panel composed of 3 Star Instructors.